In Algorithms of Oppression, Dr. Safiya Umoja Noble challenges the idea that search engines like Google offer an equal playing field for all forms of ideas, identities, and activities. Data discrimination is a real social problem; Noble argues that the combination of private interests in promoting certain sites, along with the monopoly status of a relatively small number of Internet search engines, leads to a biased set of search algorithms that privilege whiteness and discriminate against people of color, specifically women of color.

“Noble argues…that the web is …a machine of oppression…[Her] central insight – that nothing about internet search and retrieval is political neutral – is made…through the accumulation of alarming and disturbing examples. [She] makes a compelling case that pervasive racism online inflames racist violence IRL.”

—Los Angeles Review of Books


Essential Books by Black Scholars on Technology, Science, and Race

Critical Race + Black Feminism




Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia | website

The Legacy of Lynching
Brooklyn Museum | website

The Underground Museum
Los Angeles | website

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Digital Security Resources

  • Surveillance Self-Defense | by the Electronic Frontier Foundation /more
  • Secure voice calls and messages | by Freedom of the Press Foundation /more
  • Securing Your Digital Life Like a Normal Person | by Martin Shelton /more
  • Digital Security Guides and Resources | by crash override /more
  • Digital Self-Defense Knowledgebase | by Defend Our Movements /more